Vitamin E is one of four lipid-soluble vitamins (vitamin A, D and K).1 It also functions as an antioxidant which protects cell membranes in the body, and protects cells from oxidative stress. Recent research suggests that these antioxidant properties can override harmful molecules referred to as free radicals. These free radicals are produced within our cells which may lead to tissue damage or disease.
Vitamin E can be found in a variety of foods. Good sources include eggs, wholemeal products, spinach, broccoli, sprouts, soya beans and nuts.2
The recommended EU Nutritional Reference Value for both men and women is 12mg per day. You should get all the vitamin E you need from the foods you eat top up with a supplement.
There is no major effect on the stability when cooking vitamin E rich ingredients. However, it’s worth bearing in mind when cooking with vitamin E rich foods to use fresh produce, steam rather than boil and avoid overcooking to ensure you are getting the maximum benefit.1
It is rare to be vitamin E deficient and tends to occur in individuals with rare genetic disorders and those suffering with severe fat malabsorption.1
Vitamin E is available in many forms such as tablets, capsules and liquids. It can also be found in topical ointments.
It is best to store vitamin E supplements in a cool, dry place and away from direct sunlight.2
Regardless of age, vitamin D is needed for the maintenance of normal bones, because it helps the body absorb calcium and phosphorus. It supports the proper functioning of muscles. It also aids in the process of cell division, which helps our bodies grow and repair themselves. Vitamin D contributes to the normal functioning of the immune system, which is the body's natural defence against germs and harmful bacteria.
Infants and children
People who spend a lot of time indoors
People with darker skin tones
People with milk allergies or lactose intolerant
People who live in areas that do not get a lot of sun